making social media tick…

I have just returned from watching ‘the social network’, the movie that fictionalises the formation of Facebook, and the drama behind the contested ownership of the idea. It provided an appropriate time to think back to what makes social media work.

In the movie, the character of Mark Zuckerberg (the ‘inventor’ of Facebook) is asked what is the main purpose driving the initial development of the site. He talks about the ability to replicate the ‘social experience of college online’. What makes people social? What behaviours, practices and skills do we use when were interacting with others? Think about this in a social context. Meeting other people in a class, or at a party and then try and translate that an online environment.

Are we being social for example, at a party, if we sit in the corner, listen to our iPod and ignore everyone there? Whilst this may sound like the plot of a really bad teen movie it does helps us understand social interaction a little. Social media relies on people not just consuming the media (sitting at the party and just watching people have fun) but making the media as well (interacting with people at the party, dancing, talking, sharing). These processes are called in the literature cultural or content production and consumption. In order to consume content on the web, someone has to produce it. One of the most liberating aspects of social media is ease with which people produce and consume content, with little barriers to access. YouTube takes a cheap, often inbuilt camera in your phone or computer and you can make a video, Facebook asks you to share the most basic of details about and you can begin to find friends and share content and ideas.

This ability to produce and consume with relative ease has led to the rise of two interesting new concepts

Firstly is the rise of the prosumer. A prosumer is the combination of both producer and consumer (for a more detailed exploration have a read through, it covers a lot of the theoretical traditions that inform the definition of prosumer)

The idea of a prosumer is interesting in terms of our position as professional practitioners. In the past participation in arts and cultural production was limited by the persons income (professional cameras for example were expensive), a persons skills (often equipment, techniques and processes were complex) and education (many arts and cultural fields relied on long periods of education and training before someone was capable of participating in cultural production). Particularly with the rise of social media and user generated content, these barriers whilst still existing, have been lowered in many areas of production. People learn how to make films through consuming and then producing YouTube videos. More people are exposed to the art of photography by using cheap cameras and posting their pics to Flickr or their Facebook, hopefully getting better with practice and greater exposure to other peoples work. This expansion of involvement of people in cultural production and consumption is the second interesting concept.

This video is an interview with Don Taspcott, author of Wikinomics, who talks about the notion of the prosumer, what it means to be a member of the net generation and how the internet has been invaluable in building communities, encouraging the formation of networks and power of the skills we have acquired as users of social networks

The speed with which cultural production can occur, be spread and shared and then remixed and reused is another important feature of this debate. How quickly can you think of an idea about your BAPP course, share it on your blog, tag it so people can find it and have comments? Free software, online sites that do the processing and ‘back room’ stuff for you (such as YouTube converting your videos into flash format and streaming them, which might require hours of time if you wanted to do that yourself) all make the sharing of content easy. There is however an argument that perhaps quantity does not equal quality and instead of seeing 10 photos of quality displayed in a gallery, we are wading through thousands of pics every day on Flickr in order to find the stuff we really like. This opens a new debate about how we categorise and label information and content (which we might leave for another day)

So, have a think about your roles in terms of making content and consuming content? Are they separate? Do you make content different to what you consume, or for different audiences? What are your motivations for making and producing content?

Here is the trailer for ‘the social network’ (in cinemas now!)

You may also be interested in these statistics about how pervasive and kind of important this whole phenomenon and debate actually is…

Social Media Revolution from Socialnomics on Vimeo.

engaging in your literature review

It is timely to have a little chat about chapter 2, the literature review.  This builds on the stuff we were talking about in the campus sessions (which hopefully everyone there has started to blog about!)

For me, the research questions you are working on are always bought into a sharp focus in terms of the literature search and review (LR).  The LR tells the story of why your project is important and valuable.  By the end of reading your LR, your reader should know exactly why you are finding out what you have chosen to research.  Can I give you an amount to read?  Not really!  As this is under-graduate, a good sampling of literature would assist you to build an argument for your research.  It will also ensure that you are not just doing what someone else has already completed or researched.

You can try using a website called Google scholar ( which provides access to a large range of articles, conference papers etc.  If you go into Google scholar through the library site listed below, you will access to more of Google scholar.  If there are articles there that sound really interesting and you can’t get access (much of the current selection of academic work is protected for paying customers) you might be able to access the paper or article through the MU library site.  Access is secured by a process called Athens…your Athens password is the same one you use to log into the 24/7 portal for your email.

All of this can be completed off-site and you don’t have to come to the library.  You can also access books and other materials if you do use the MU library service at any of our campuses.

Here is the link for the Middlesex University library site

If you want a practical guide to how to construct a literature review, have a read through this site;

It is a very comprehensive article by the University of South Australia that covers the whole range of literature reviews (right up to a PhD) so don’t get too freaked out at the scope of the review.  They key suggestions about format and how to approach a literature review are really important for you.  The completion of a good LR can save a whole lot of effort further down the track, and makes your findings potentially so much more rigorous.  This is an important word, rigour.  You can going to make conclusions based on your research and those conclusions might change the way you undertake or manage your professional practice.  The better and the more reliable and valid you make your findings, the more rigorous your conclusions will be.

Stencil art, Lisbon

Think about a story, you start with a broad topic and then slowly build a picture with more detail, so for each of your topics, start telling your story (backed by literature) and then filter it down so that I as the reader understand the area you are researching (nutrition, teaching etc), you specific interest in that area, and then what other people have said or researched about your area of interest.

Finally, I want to have a chat about how you manage your references.

When researching, we often use a variety of sources of information.  All of those sources need to be included in your reference list at the end of your submitted work.  At Middlesex we use the Harvard system of referencing (see your module handbook for a more detailed discussion of this).  One of the most annoying and fiddling tasks in writing is the putting together of your reference list and the citing of works inside your essay or assignment.

This process can be made much easier by the use of citation software such as RefWorks or EndNote or the ‘references’ tab within Office 2007.  These packages work with your word processor to allow you to ‘cite while you write’ putting in the correct format of in-text reference and then building your reference list in the right format.

Most of these programs also work with databases that contain articles, papers, references and the like.  Most of these databases will have an ‘export to citation manager’ button or option, and will fill in all the fields of the reference for you, without you typing a word.

One you get the hang of the way they work, you can keep your reference library and use is for all your scholarly work.  The effort comes in getting the data into the database each time you choose to cite a piece of work, but the pay off comes from a perfectly formatted reference list, accurate citations inside your work and the warm fuzzy glow that comes from knowing that you will never have to type the name and title of that book or article ever again, it will in your database until you choose to delete it!

Here is a link to a PowerPoint slide set on how to use a citation manager such as RefWorks.

For more information and a free copy of refworks for your computer, go to this link

Don’t get too hung up about using a citation manager, but it may help to keep track of things and make doing your reference list at the end much easier!

Using Flickr to build community and networks

I find flickr one of the most useful web 2.0 tools in that the primary aspect of its interface is user content, shared with both individual users and groups. The user content in this case is king and is front and centre for both the creator and consumer.

Flickr represents the simplest way to transition from being a consumer of culture to a producer of it (a process that has been called prosuming, where the same person can participate in the production and consumption of arts and culture, facilitated in part by the interactivity and engagement of web 2.0 technology- for more info see, which is a great article written by Ellie Rennie)

So, how does flickr link creators and ‘fans’? If you just upload your own photos on flickr, sharing them with others, tagging them with labels that help people find them and then letting your friends and colleagues know that the flickr photostream is available and running, then flickr serves the same purpose as say Facebook in terms of photo sharing. flickr does more however. It allows you to post your photos to albums of shared interest and content. It encourages you to make other people photos favourites and then comment on their work. After you have made contact with people through being in the same group, sharing their work or even having a conversation with them through commenting, you can make them your friend and share their new uploads.

Like most web 2.0 applications, it relies on the sharing of user generated content, interaction between users and a commitment to maintain that contact, perhaps using mediums other than flickr (such as a twitter feed or through a blog) in order to be an effective tool of networking.

So, search some groups that might be related to the pictures you have posted and post some of your photos to that group. Look at other peoples photos and make some comments on their work. Perhaps blog some of the groups you have found on flickr. Here are some interesting flickr groups I just found that you might wish to have a look at, or share your photos on…

A final suggestion might be to embed your flickr photo stream into your blog. How you do this varies from blog site. However, there is a simple how-to guide located here